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CompTIA 6-step Troubleshooting Theory
Identify the problem.
Establish a theory of probable cause. (Question the obvious.)
Test the theory to determine the cause.
Create an action plan to solve the problem and apply the solution.
Verify the entire system's work and, if applicable, create measures to prevent future issues.
Document findings, actions, and outcomes.
Windows 8.1 min. requirements: CPU = 1 GHz; RAM = 1 GB for 32-bit, 2 GB for 64-bit; free disk space = 16 GB for 32- bit, 20 GB for 64-bit.
Windows 7 min. requirements: CPU = 1 GHz; RAM = 1 GB for 32-bit, 2 GB for 64-bit; free disk space = 16 GB for 32- bit, 20 GB for 64-bit.
Windows Vista min. requirements: CPU = 800 MHz; RAM = 512 MB; free disk space =15 GB.
Command Prompt is a command-line tool for Windows. To run in elevated mode, follow these steps: (Microsoft Windows 8) (Windows 7/Vista) Right-click the start button and choose Command Prompt. To run Command Prompt as administrator, go to Start > All Programs > Accessories, right-click it, and select Run as administrator. The following versions are available: CMD can be found by typing it into the search field, then selecting it with Ctrl+Shift+Enter.
Snap-ins are simple console windows that extend the capabilities of the Microsoft Management Console (MMC). Computer Management and Performance Monitor are two examples.
In Windows 8 and 7, libraries conceptually reflect user-defined folder collections (Documents, Music, Pictures, Videos).
Device Manager, System Information Tool, Task Manager, and Msconfig are all standard system utilities.
The User State Migration Tool and Windows Easy Transfer can move user data (USMT).
The Registry is a database that stores all of Windows' settings. You may get to it by entering regedit.exe into the Run prompt. Hives hold sets; HKEY LOCAL MACHINE is a frequently changed hive.
The Remote Desktop software allows you to view and control a remote computer's interface.
Bootmgr, Winload.exe, and BCD are among the Windows 8/7/Vista boot files.
Bootmgr, Winload.exe, and BCD are among the Windows 8/7/Vista boot files.
Repairs using bootrec /fixboot Bootmgr, Bootrec /fixmbr, and Bootrec /rebuildbcd rewrite the master boot record and the boot configuration data store, respectively.
DIR is the directory command in Windows. The MD command adds directories, the RD command removes them, and the CD command navigates them.
The commands del (deletes), copy (copies files), xcopy (copies multiple files and directory trees), and robocopy may all be used to alter files (robust file copy, replaces xcopy).
Format (which creates a new file system) and diskpart can modify drives (does everything Disk Management does but in the Command Prompt).
In Windows, file checking command-line utilities such as Chkdsk (/F repairs problems; /R locates problematic areas and recovers information) and SFC are employed (System File Checker). SFC /scannow is a popular command.
An MBR (master boot record) hard disk can contain four partitions: a maximum of four partitions but only one extended partition. A logical drive is a portion of a larger partition. The Active partition is where the computer boots up from, and it generally includes the operating system. Any part of a drive labeled with a letter is referred to as a volume.
A GPT (GUID Partition Table) hard disk may contain 128 partitions and go beyond the MBR's 2 TB restriction. The GPT is kept in several places. A UEFI-compliant motherboard is required.
NTFS (Windows' main file system), FAT32 (an earlier system), CDFS (Compact Disc File System), exFAT (Extended FAT, adapted for flash drives), NFS (Network File System, Linux computers), ext3, and ext4 are some of the file systems available (extended file systems, popular in Linux).
A service pack (SP) is a single downloaded file or disc that contains a collection of updates, bug patches, updated drivers, and security fixes. Service packs aren't used in Windows 8 or 8.1.
Windows Update: Start > All Programs > Windows Update (Windows 7/Vista) and Control Panel are also good places to look for Windows Update.
Backups may be made with File History in Windows 8, Backup and Restore in Windows 7, and Backup Status and Configuration in Windows Vista.
System Restore can resolve difficulties caused by faulty hardware or software by reverting to a previous point in time.
F8: The Advanced Boot Choices Menu (ABOM), which contains options like Safe Mode, Enable low-resolution video, and Last Known Good Configuration, is accessed by pressing F8. If feasible, Safe Mode can boot the system with only the most basic drivers, which must be enabled in Windows 8.
Startup Repair, System Restore, and Command Prompt are all available in the Windows Recovery Environment (Windows RE).
Within three major log files: System, Application, and Security, the Event Viewer warns about possible problems and displays mistakes as they occur. Information about auditing is displayed by security.
A stop error (also known as a Blue Screen of Death or BSOD) causes the operating system to stop responding and displays a blue screen with text and code. Faulty hardware or poor drivers might be to blame for the stop error.
Processes can be terminated using Task Manager or the Command Prompt's task kill command. A tasklist displays a list of presently executing processes.
Wireless encryption protocols include:
- WEP (Wired Equivalent Privacy), 64-bit key size, deprecated
- WPA (Wi-Fi Protected Access), version 2 is 256-bit
- TKIP (Temporal Key Integrity Protocol), 128-bit, deprecated
- AES (Advanced Encryption Standard), 128-bit, 192-bit, and 256-bit
- The best combination is WPA2 with AES (as of the writing of this book.)
Cloud types: SaaS (software as a service), IaaS (infrastructure as a service), and PaaS (platform as a service) are examples of cloud kinds.
Malicious software: also known as malware and includes:
- Virus: A virus is a piece of software that runs on your computer without your permission. When the code is run, it infects the machine. Boot Sector, Macro, Program, Polymorphic, Stealth, and Multipartite are a few examples.
- Worms: are similar to viruses in that they multiply themselves.
- Trojan Horses: Trojan Horses are programs that look to be helpful but are actually running harmful code in the background.
- Spyware: Spyware is malicious software that is mistakenly downloaded from a website or installed alongside other third-party software.
- Rootkit: Software that allows a user to get administrator-level access to the system core while remaining undetected.
- Ransomware: is computer software that holds a computer captive until the user pays a ransom.
CompTIA A+ Certification
We hope you found this CompTIA A+ guide useful for studying. Remember it takes 90 minutes to complete each exam. And, though the certification is for beginners, it's the entry point for further advancement in whatever IT career you choose. Whether it's a field service technician or desk support analyst, CompTIA A+ is a great starting point in your IT career. The certification is used throughout the world for those with experience in the IT world who want to earn certification to gain a promotion/new job or command a higher salary in the growing IT field.
Make the most of other free resources to avoid having to repeat the examinations. With enough time and work, you might rapidly become certified and on your way to achieving your professional objectives. In the IT industry and many other fields, the CompTIA A+ certification is highly recognized. That's why big businesses like Nissan, BlueCross BlueShield, Dell, HP, and others recognize it. CompTIA recommends that you have nine to twelve months of experience in order to be completely prepared before taking the two A+ certification examinations, as previously indicated. We also offer practice exams accessible at the link below to help you put what you've learned to the test.